Sunday, December 6, 2009


1932, DR. ARTURO Cabarrus DE SANTOS, King Consort of Queen Emma Ruiz
was the son of Jose Santos and Concepcion Cabarrus of Manila. He had a brother, Alberto and a sister, Alicia de Santos, the original Miss Luzon in the 1931 court of Maria Kalaw, who resigned her title.
Arturo was born in Manila in 1912. He took up Medicine at the University of Santo Tomas and it was as a medical student that he was asked to be the King Consort of the queen-elect of the 1932 Manila Carnival, Emma Zamora.

Arturo combined his love for science and the creative arts. He was also practicing medicine when, from 1939-40, he went to New York to study painting and metalcraft at the Columbia University. When Word War II came, he rendered service with the Red Cross and with the American Navy as a surgeon.

After the War, he dabbled seriously in the decorative arts which soon became his main vocation, designing the interiors for 12 houses of members of prominent Philippine families. From 1959-1960, he was in Hong Kong, doing the interior design of the partly-Philippine owned Ambassador Hotel, which, at that time was one of the most modern hotel in the colony.

It was his stay in Hong Kong that spurred his collecting interest in Chinese ceramics and furniture. He became an accomplished interior designer and his services were sought after by many high society families, including the First Lady, Imelda Romualdez, for her many building projects. An aesthete, he also collected Philippine sacred art, santos, paintings, pre-colonial jewelry. He housed his collection in a pre-war European style house that he owned. In 1966, he offered his collection to the Cultural Center of the Philippines, making the offer through the architect Leandro Locsin, who designed the Center

When he passed away on 26 February 1996 without a direct heir, he bequeathed his fabulous collection of pre-Colonial and colonial art to his cousin Pacita de los Reyes, the 1929 Miss Philippines.

Geronimo Santiago Jr., (Escort of Miss Luzon, Rosalina Lim)
Son Geronimo Santiago Sr., head of the Manila Municipal Board and Acting Mayor of Manila in 1922.

Ramon Araneta,
(Escort of Miss Mindanao, Violeta Lopez)


1933, DR. GREGORIO Y. ZAFRA, King Consort of Queen Engracia Laconico
Lipa-born Gregorio Y. Zafra and is the country’s most accomplished scientist. He graduated with a Mechanical Engineering degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1926. The next year, he earned his Masters in Aeronautic Engineering from the University of Michigan, and then in 1930, his doctorate in Physics from Sorbonne in France. He went back to the Philippines and his off-scientific pursuits included providing escort duties to the 1933 Miss Philippines, Engracia Laconico, a family friend. He married her a year later.

As a physicist, he discovered the physical law of kinetic resistance, now known as the Zafra effect. His inventions include the 2-way TV telephone or videophone (1955), improved solar energy designs for the sun stove, solar battery and solar water heater, an alcohol-fuelled airplane engine, a propeller-cutting machine and helped in building the robot Marex X-10.

For these pioneering works, he was given the Distinguished Service Medal in 1959. In 1966, he received the Presidential Gold Medal and Diploma of Honor for Science and Research and the Cultural Heritage Award for Science Education and Aero-Engineering.His highest accolade was the National Artist Award in 1978.

Hector Gomez ( Escort, Luisa Laconico, Miss Luzon)
A real-life romance bloomed between Hector and Luisa, and they were married after the Carnival at the Quiapo Church.

Antonio Albert, (Escort, Marcelina Cuenca, Miss Visayas)
Married Teresa Araneta (1908/1938), sister of Jose Araneta who was the 1924 King Consort. They had 6 children: Ramon, Jose, Ma. Teresa, Ma. Consuelo, Antonio Jr., and Carmen.


1934, (UNIDENTIFIED) King Consort of Queen Clarita Tan Kiang


1935, ANTONIO BAYOT, King Consort of Queen Conchita Sunico
He was the son of Jesus Ma. and Margarita Bayot. His siblings included Carmen, Raymond, Teresa and Josefina. Conchita Sunico was a cousin.


Pedro P. Chanco Jr., (Escort, Catalina Zabala, Miss Luzon)
The country’s foremost expert on tropical infectious diseases and parasitology was born on Rizal’s birthday, 19 June 1912 , hence his name –Pedro Protacio Pabalan Chanco Jr. He graduated from the UP College of Medicine (1937) and earned his Masters in Public Health (Tropical Medicine) from Tulane University in New Orleans in 1949. Upon his return in 1948, joined the UST College of Medicine, Microbiology and Parasitology as part of the teaching staff and as department head He was active in the Philippine College of Physicians and was also a member of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine based in London. He was also the author of many scientific papers and textbooks dealing with his fields of specialization. He married Avelina Cabrera (b. 6 Mar. 1913) also a UP medical school graduate. The Chancos lived with their five children in Paco. Pedro Jr. passed away on 5 March 1997, and Avelina followed him shortly just 3 months later. One child followed in their footsteps by becoming a doctor, specializing in dermatology at Yale Medical School. Another son is the Philippine Star columnist, Boo Chanco.

(Many thanks to Mr. Boo Chanco for the information on his father, Dr. Pedro P. Chanco Jr.)

Jose Y. Feliciano, (Escort, Julieta Abad, Miss Visayas)
Jose Feliciano, a Tarlaqueño, was a member of the House of Representatives for the 2nd district of the province in 1949. Later, he headed the Rice and Corn Administration. In 1963, he was appointed by Pres. Diosdado Macapagal as Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources, till 1965.

Jose Zamora, (Escort, Consuelo Villamor, Miss Mindanao)


1936, ZAFIRO LEDESMA, King Consort of Queen Mercedes Montilla
Became a Mayor of Iloilo.


Ricardo Manotok, (Escort, Amparo Karagdag, Miss Luzon)
Ricardo (b. 1915) married Carmen Arguelles La O. He is better known as the father of Tommy Manotoc, the former husband of Aurora McKenny Pijuan, 1970 Miss International, and Imee Marcos. He publicly accused the Marcoses when Tommy was “kidnapped” in 1982. Another son, Ricardo Jr. was also married to Chingbee Kalaw, daughter of former Carnival Queen consort Teddy Kalaw Jr. with Senator Eva Estrada. Their other children are Patricia and Guillermo.

Leon Ma. Guerrero, (Escort, Helen Bennett, Miss Visayas)
Born 24 Mar. 1915 to Dr. Alfredo Leon Guerrero, founder of the Manila College of Pharmacy and Dentistry and Filomena Francsico, the 1st Filipina pharmacist. Leon graduated summa cum laude with a Bachelor of Arts degree at the Steneo, then finished law with the highsets honors at the Philippine Law School. He became an award-winning journalist, diplomat and nationalist. He was an Ambassador to the Court of St. James, Denmark, Spain, Germany, India, Nepal, Norway, Sweden and other Central American countries. He translated Rizal’s works into English and wrote “The First Filipino”, Rizal’s biography. He has won the Premio Zobel, and accorded WWII Campaign medals and the Philippine Legion of Honor Award. Married Annie Corominas in 1938. Married Margaret Burke of London after his first wife’s death with whom he had a son, advertising executive David Guerrero. He died 24 June 1982.

Ricardo Paras, Escort, (Escort, Cleofe Balingit, Miss Mindanao)


1937, COL. ANTONIO ARNAIZ, King Consort of Queen Carmen Zaldarriaga
Col. Antonio Arnaiz was already an acclaimed personality in the field of aviation when he was chosen to escort the 1937 Miss Philippines, Carmen Zaldarriaga. He, together with Juan Calvo, made the pioneering Manila- Madrid flight in 1936, a first in Philippine aviation, now known as the ‘Arnacal Flight’.

Antonio was born to a hacendero family of prominence in Bais, Negros Oriental. His parents were Tomas and Agueda Arnaiz, whose other children included Francisca, Luis, Maria, Emiliano and Lolita. He studied at the Dallas Aviation School in the U.S. and in 1936, made plans to mount a trans-Atlantic flight. He rallied family and friends like Carlos P. Romulo and Federico Calero to fund this ambitious project, the money of which was spent in refurbishing his Fairchild plane.

On 29 May 1936, aboard their plane re-christened “Commonwealth of the Philippines”, the Antonio and Juan took off from the Nielson Airport at 5 a.m. and arrived in Hong Kong later in the day where they were welcomed by an enthusiastic international crowd .The two Filipino pilots landed in Barcelona on 11 July and proceeded to Madrid, touching down at 5 in the afternoon. The welcome was tumultuous; they were wined and dined and were honored with a bullfight to toast their aerial achievement.

When they returned to the Philippines on 8 September 1936, the two were treated as heroes and were promoted to Lieutenant Colonels in the new Philippine Army Air Corps by President Manuel L. Quezon. Their historic flight was commemorated with a special stamp issued that year.In early 1937, Antonio was selected to become the King Consort of fellow Visayan belle, Carmen Zaldarriaga. Romance bloomed between the two and Antonio and Carmen eventually got married, begetting five children. Antonio went on to earn a doctoral degree in aeronautics engineering and served as the Vice President and Director of the Philippine Aviation Corporation.

Antonio died in 1979, many years ahead of Carmen. In his honor, the old Pasay Road was renamed Arnaiz Avenue. This road crossed Makati Avenue and Paseo de Roxas, once the runways of Nielson Airport, from where Antonio Arnaiz took off on an adventure that earned him a place in Philippine aviation history and in the heart of the 1937 Miss Philippines.


1938, ERNESTO Ventura SANTOS, King Consort of Queen Guia Balmori
Youngest son of Dña. Africa Ventura and Teodoro Santos of San Fernando, Pampanga. Valentin Ventura, the financier of Rizal’s El Filibusterismo was his grand uncle. Ernesto took up Industrial Chemistry at the University of the Philippines. He married Tessie Revilla, whose parents, Florentina Goyena and Jose Revilla were in the royal court of Carmen Prieto as princess and escort respectively. Their daughter, Tina Santos, was once a sought-after model and a top international ballerina and ballet choreographer.


1939, RAMON Calleja FERNANDEZ, King Consort of Queen Iluminada Tuason

Ramon Fernandez (b. 16 February 1916) was originally from Libon, Albay, the eldest son of Bartolome Fernandez with Pilar Calleja. His family owned and operated the Legaspi Colleges. He earned his Associate in Arts and his Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of the Philippines, the valedictorian of the 1939 class which included his classmate Ferdinand E. Marcos. It was at the state university that he was asked to render escort duties to the 1939 Miss Philippines, Queen Iluminada Tuason whom he eventually married.

After placing 2nd in the bar exams, he practiced law and became a law professor at his alma mater, as well as at the Manuel L. Quezon University and the Philippine Law School. He was appointed by Marcos as Undersecretary of Justice, a post he held from 1968-1971. He was appointed as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1977. He took a second wife, Lydia Seva after Iluminada’s death. The distinguished jurist passed away in 1997.



1926, VICENTE A. RUFINO, King Consort of Queen Socorro Henson
Vicente Rufino was a student of Law when he was selected to be the King Consort of Queen Socorro Henson. He was, at one time, also the president of Smiles Club, which regularly nominated and supported candidates to the annual Carnival. He married Remedios Rufino and the couple had the following children: Mercedes, Ma. Paz, Auxilia, Ma. Socorro, Macario, Carlos.

Vicente successfully continued the business of their family, which included construction of movie houses. One of the first high rise edifices along Ayala Avenue corner Herrera Street-- Rufino Building—is a prime Rufino property. The street has since been renamed V.A. Rufino Street. A brother of Vicente, Rafael Rufino went on to marry Miss Visayas 1935, Julieta Abad. Died 20 Apr. 1970.


Francisco Escolar Limjap
Son of Mariano Limjap, the Chinese-Filipino businessman who helped finance the Revolution. His siblings included Esperanza (the original 1908 winner), Leonarda and Perico Limjap who married the 1923 queen, Catalina Apacible. Francisco married the 1926 winner, Socorro Henson in 1929 with whom he had 4 children.

1926, LEOPOLD Villarosa KAHN JR., King Consort of Queen Anita Noble

Leopold Kauffman Kahn Sr. (b. 1870) , together with the Levy brothers, came to the Philippines from Alsace in 1909 to found “La Estrella del Norte”, a jewelry store that expanded into a popular general merchandise store along Escolta. He started a family here with Agripina Villarosa (when she died, he married the sister Anacoreta), and raised eleven children.

Leopold Jr. was the eldest son from the first union, born in Manila on 13 March 1903. The brood that numbered 11 in all also included Raoul, Rene, Carlos Emiliano, Luz, Louis and Lita. “ Ito” was no stranger to the Manila Carnivals, as in 1924, he was one of the prince consorts in the court of Trinidad Fernandez. Tragically, he lost his entire family during the War, all killed by the Japanese, including his beloved wife Josephine Tremblay.

He left the Philippines for the United States after the War, and settled in Los Angeles, California, where he engaged in gemology, which after all, was a family tradition. His relatives remember him as “a wonderful person and a true gentleman”. He died in L.A. on 6 Jul. 1974.

(Many thanks to Ms. Malou Kahn Magsaysay for the information on Ito Kahn Jr. )


1927, GUILLERMO JOSE, King Consort of Queen Luisa Marasigan
Guillermo Jose was a member of the popular Bachelor’s Club, and his photo was one of the scores submitted to the 1927 winner, Luisa Marasigan, who was to personally select her King Consort to her coronation.

Guillermo was a natural choice because her sisters Rosita, Alicia and Zita were Luisa’s schoolmates, all Escolarinas and very loyal alumnae. Guillermo was also the godson of the assistant directress of the college, Carmen de Luna, which further bolstered his association with the school.

Guillermo, however, fell for the charms of Miss Rizal, Encarnacion Ybañez Johnson, a situation somehow similar to the case of the 1926 winner, Socorro Henson, who married not her consort, but one of the courtiers, Francisco Limjap.

Encarnacion Ybañez thus became Mrs. Guillermo Jose, and the couple became the parents of tennis ace Johnny Jose. Johnny was a member of the 1955 Philippine tennis team in the Davis Cup and won a gold medal at the 1962 Jakarta Asiad. Guillermo was elected president of the Philippine Tennis Association in 1952, and a memorial tennis tournament bearing his name is held annually.


1930, EMILIO Veloso OSMEÑA, King Consort of Queen Consuleo Acuña
Son of Speaker Sergio Osmeña with Estefania Chiong Veloso . Siblings include Nicasio, Vicenta (who herself was a Carnival queen candidate in 1922), Edilberto, Milagros, Teodoro, Jose, Sergio Jr. Married to Mary Louise Renner. His children include former senator John Osmeña and Dr. Emilio Osmeña Jr.


1931, TEODORO Villanueva KALAW Jr., King Consort of Queen Maria Kalaw
Teodoro Jr. or “Teddy” was the brother of Maria Kalaw. Their parents were Pura Villanueva and Teodoro Kalaw. Teddy finished a course in Business Administration from the University of the Philippines. He pursued and finished Law at Far Eastern University and an M.A. in Industrial Management from U.P. He is also an Electronics Communications engineer and a Certified Public Accountant.

He married Eva Estrada, a Home Economics graduate from U.P. and the daughter of Dr. Salvador Estrada and Demetria Reynado. Eva Estrada later was elected a Senator of the Philippines. The couple had 4 children, Maria Eva (Chingbee), Teodoro III (Teddy Boy), Salvador (Salvy) and Valerio Ramon (Tyrone). Teodoro Jr. passed away on 14 June 1984.


1921, DR. BASILIO J. VALDES, King Consort of Queen Carmen Prieto
Basilio was born in San Miguel, Manila on 10 July 1892 to Dr. Benito Salvador Valdes and Filomena Pica, the Valdeses have deep roots in Floridablanca, Pampanga. The Valdeses led peripatetic lives, which explains why young Basilio spent a number of years in different schools here and abroad. He was schooled in La Salle, Barcelona, San Beda, La Salle Hong Kong, the American School in Manila, Pagsanjan High School and Manila High School—all in a span of 8 years.

Largely influenced by his father, he enrolled in Medicine at the University of Santo Tomas and graduated with honors in 1916. Driven to serve beyond his country, he joined the French Army as a medical volunteer, then the U.S. Army as a surgeon from 1917-1919.

When he came back to the Philippines, he became a medical inspector for the Philippine Constabulary for 8 long years (1926-1934). President Manuel L. Quezon appointed him as Chief of Staff of the Philippine Constabulary and Philippine Army in 1939, elevating his rank to a general (he would rise to become a Brigadier General). Two years later, Basilio was appointed as Secretary of National Defense.

During the Japanese period, he served under Pres. Jose P. Laurel as Secretary of Public Works. Basilio was even busier when the war years ended, becoming a president many times over for various associations, like the Manila Lions. In the 1950s, he was also the President of Hacienda del Carmen of Floridablanca, Pampanga.

The good doctor married Rosario ‘Bombona’ Legarda whom he met during the 1921 Manila Carnival. She had been a princess in the court of the Carnival Queen, Carmen Prieto, whom Basilio escorted. The couple was childless, but had an adoptive daughter. Dr. Basilio J. Valdes died on 26 January 1970 after a long and fruitful career.


1922, CARLOS Peña ROMULO, King Consort of Queen Virginia Llamas
The Philippines’ most distinguished diplomat was born 14 Jan. 1899 to Gregorio Romulo, former governor of Tarlac, and Maria Peña who both lived in Camiling, Tarlac. Romulo went to local schools and then enrolled at the University of the Philippines for his Bachelor of Arts course graduating in 1918. Then he went to the U.S. where he earned his master’s from Columbia University in 1921.

When he came back to the Philippines, he worked as an English professor at U.P. and became an editor of The Herald, which sponsored the winning candidate, Virginia Llamas. Manuel Earnshaw, owner of the newspaper mandated him to escort Virginia, a job which he balked at initially. After meeting Virginia, he changed his mind about his Carnival duties, wooed and married her in Pampanga.

Romulo served as a secretary to Senate Pres. Manuel L. Quezon and was a member of the Philippine Independence Mission. Her won the coveted Pulitzer Prize in 1941 for his series of articles about Southeast Asia’s political scene. During the War, he served under Gen. Douglas MacArthur, accompanied him in his return to the Philippines and rose to become a brigadier-general in 1941.

In 1945, he was named delegate to the United Nations and was the first Asian to be chosen as head of the UN General Assembly in 1949. After his stint as Secretary of Foreign Affairs (1950-51), he was appointed ambassador to the U.S. He also became president of his alma mater, the University of the Philippines.

As an author, he wrote books such as “I Saw the Fall of the Philippines”, “Mother America”, “I Walk with Heroes” and “Identity and Change”. He received such awards as the UN Peace Medal, National Artist in Literature and Hero of the Republic Award. Years after Virginia’s death, he married American journalist Beth Day. “Mr. United Nations”, as Secretary General Kurt Waldheim dubbed him, died on 15 December 1985 at age 86.


Eugenio Lopez Sr.

Vicente Mendoza


1923, EUGENIO Hofileña LOPEZ Sr., King Consort of Queen Catalina Apacible
Eugenio or ‘Eñing’ was born to the landed Lopez family of Iloilo. When Eugenio’s father, Benito, was murdered in 1908, he and his brother Fernando were put under the guardianship of an uncle, Vicente Lopez with wife Elena Hofileña. He spent his collegiate years at the University of the Philippines where he was very active in several editions of the Carnival, either by heading fund-raising drives or providing consorting services to the court princesses.

Shortly after graduation, he married Pacita Moreno, and they briefly settled in the legendary “Nelly Gardens” mansion of the Lopezes in Iloilo. Their children include Eugenio (Geny), Oscar and Manolo.

As a multi-facetted business man, Eugenio founded the Manila Chronicle and the Chronicle Broadcasting Network. He also helped establish the first airline in Asia, and ran Meralco, the country’s biggest power supply company.

During the Marcos years, he was forced to yield his multi-million pesos business enterprises as a deal to save his son, Eugenio Jr., from jail, arrested by the dictator as a dissident( Geny later escaped with Serge Osmeña from their martial law prison). Marcos did not spare even his Vice President—Fernando, Eugenio’s brother—dissolving his position and stripping the Lopezes of their wealth.

Eugenio died of cancer in San Francisco, California in 1975. This enterprising pioneer, nationalist and philanthropist would be heartened to see his business empire rebuilt by his son Geny as the Lopez Group, with various interest in media, manufacturing, utilities, construction, power generation and distribution, and real estate. His grandson and namesake Eugenio III (Gabby) is the current Chairman and CEO of ABS-CBN, the largest media conglomerate in the country today.


Perico Escolar Limjap
Son of Mariano Limjap, the Chinese-Filipino businessman who helped finance the Revolution. His siblings included Esperanza (the original 1908 winner), Leonarda and Francisco Limjap who married the 1926 queen, Socorro Henson. Perico married the 19263 winner, Catalina Apacible. The Limjaps had 3 children: Eddie, Evelyn and Connie. During the war, Perico engaged in guerrilla activities. He was caught and executed by Japanese authorities, a casualty of a cruel war.


1924, JOSE ZARAGOZA ARANETA, King Consort of Queen Trinidad Fernandez
Jose was born in Manila on 7 Dec. 1900 to Gregorio Soriano Araneta and Carmen Roxas Zaragoza. He was one of 14 children which included brothers Salvador, a lawyer, nationalist, businessman, statesman and constitutionalist and Luis Ma., a well-known arts and antique patron. He married Mercedes Lopez and had 5 children: Gregorio II, Jose Jr., Ma. Rosario, Eduardo and Ma. Mercedes. He died in December 1940.


Pepe Escolar Limjap

Victorino P. Abrera
From Albay, the son of Basilio and Josefina Abrera. At the time of the Carnival, he was on his way to becoming a successful lawyer, having passed the bar on 24 Sept. 1921. He is a graduate of the University of the Philippines. He was a regular presence at the Malacanang functions during the Quezon years, and it was said that he even courted the president’s daughter.

Pendong Tuason

David Lavadia Fernandez
Born in 1892 to Alvaro Fernandez and Engracia Lavadia. He had two other brothers, Vicente and Lucilo. He passed the bar in 1914. Married Ida Soriano with whom he had the following children: Ramon, Lutgardo, Guadalupe, Socorro and Guadalupe. Died in 1959.

Leopoldo V. Kahn Jr.
(b. 1903/d.1974) Son of Leopold Kauffman Khan of Alsace, France and Agripina Villarosa. He was the King Consort of Anita Noble, 1926 Miss Philippines.


1925, VICENTE MENDOZA, King Consort of Queen Carmen Papa
Vicente Mendoza
was also a consort in the 1926 Manila Carnival.


1908, MANUEL GOMEZ, King of the Orient
The first King Consort of the Manila Carnival is Manuel Gomez Jr., son of Dr. Manuel Gomez, head of the Statistics Department of the Bureau of Health. Manuel was a young Manila executive of the La Germinal Cigar and Cigarette Factory, a major sponsor of the 1908 Carnival. Manuel was holding office as La Germinal Secretary at Calle Marquez de Comillas when he was appointed to be the king consort of Pura Villanueva. Named as King of the Orient, he had a float of his own, of Indo-Chinese inspiration.

As the consort, he had to participate in dramatic stagings which called for him to welcome the Occidental King in a fluvial ritual. For his royal affairs, he was always dressed as an Indian Maharajah, complete with a turban and a blue velvet outfit. His demeanor, as one newspaper reported, was truly befitting a highborn: “..looking majestic and august in his dignity, and maintaining his bearing al rango de lo excelso”.
In the absence of Manuel, consorting services were provided by Mauro Prieto (father of a future Carnival Queen, 1921’s Carmen Prieto and La Germinal head), Tomas del Rosario and the fiscal of Cavite, a certain Mr. Sta. Maria.

Feliciano Arcega Basa, Jr.

Son of Feliciano and Amelia Arcega. Became a president of the Philippine Librarian Association. Also wrote books about international business and commerce.
Emilio Veloso
Became a hacendero with vast land holdings in Nueva Ecija.
Juan Zalvidea
Clodualdo TempongkoClodualdo Tempongko was the son of Ambrocio Tempongko and Inez Calixto y Ahchuy from Binondo. He was one of the first graduates of Agriculture from U.P. Los Banos. Unfortunately, he died young. His sisters who were included in Pura’s court were Elisea (Cheang) and Purificacion (Chong), who would later became Mesdames Macapinlac and Roco. Their other siblings include: Agapita(Magpayo), Demetria(Quintos), Cristina(Ongpin) and Felipe Tempongko, a graduate of Letran who fought in the Philippine Revolution, particularly in the struggle later against the Americans.

Emilio Mapua

1908, COL. GEORGE T.LANGHORNE, King of the OccidentCol. George Langhorne, a Spanish War veteran, was the aide de camp of Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood, governor of the Moro Province, and later Army Chief of Staff. After his Philippine stint, Langhorne went back to the United States and participated in several campaigns in Texas against the Mexican revolutionist, Francisco “Pancho” Villa in 1916. In 1917, he became commander of Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas. On 23 April 1928, Langhorne married Mary K. Waller of Chicago in Cliveden, England

G.S. O’Reilly
Herbert Glonna
Daniel Maloney
Maj. Howland
Capt. Paxton
Hanson E. Ely
Capt. Nuttman
Capt. Weigel
Mr. Bowdith
Mr. Gesler


1909, FRANCISCO Guerrero AGCAOILI, King Consort of Queen Julia AgcaoiliThe 1909 Queen, Julia Agcaoili, had her own brother, Francisco Guerrero Agcaoili as her King Consort. His parents were Julio Agcaoili, the first governor of Ilocos Norte and Ruperta Guerrero. Francisco was educated at Cornell (1904-1907) where he finished Chemical Engineering. He married Cipriana Davis and fathered a child with Winifred Irene Du Roucher.


1912, (unknown)
MANUEL Hernandez BERNABE, Escort of Paz Guzman, Queen of Luzon
(b. 17 Feb. 1890/ d. 29 Nov. 1960 ) Parents: Timoteo Bernabe and Emilia Hernandez. Graduated from Ateneo with a Bachelor of Arts degree. Became a noted poet, linguist and politician, excelling in ‘balagtasan’. Wrote for La Vanguardia and taught Spanish at the U.P.
LUIS ORBETA, Escort of the Queen of Mindanao
BALDOMERO PELAEZ, Escort of Remedios Reyes,Queen of Mindanao

Born in Misamis Oriental to Miguel and Dominga Pelaez. A brother, Gregorio Jr. is the father of Emmanuel Pelaez, the Vice President of the Philippines in 1961.

1915, JOSEPH MANNING, King Consort of Queen Concepcion Medina
American Auditor General.


1916, JUAN CHUIDIAN, King Consort of Queen Manolita Barretto
Juan “Johnny” Chuidian was descended from the Chuy Dian family who migrated from China and became Catholic converts in the Philippines. His parents were Telesforo Chuidian, a businessman and nationalist who helped financed the Revolution and Dolores Asuncion. The Chuidians were longtime family friends of the Barrettos and are related to the Sunicos of Binondo.


1917, MAJ. WILLIAM VAUGHN, King Consort of Queen Mela Fairchild
An officer of the U.S. Army. He and Mela Fairchild were married a year after her reign. They had two children, Bradley and Lydia Fairchild. They were later divorced.


1918, JOSE REYES GALVEZ, King Consort of Queen Enriqueta Aldanese

Jose Mossesgeld-Santiago
Noted opera singer. Son of Simon Mossesgeld-Santiago and Rosa Font of San Miguel de Mayumo and Manila. He left the Philippines in 1926 to embark on a singing career in opera houses in Italy, South America and the United States. He had a wide repertoire that. He sang at the Roxy Theater in New York and also recorded Filipino songs for Columbia records in the United States. His greatest feat is his performing in one of the world’s most famous opera houses-- La Scala—a prize for winning the Enrico Caruso vocal competition in the United States.

Jose married Dolores Andrada and had a son, Enrico. With Isabel Llewellyn whom he met while pursuing a career in the U.S., Jose had Joseph and Phillip. He had three more children, Mila Santiago, Teresita and Sigfrido, the latter two with Genoveva Perlas. Afer conquering the world stage, he returned to Manila to teach classical singing while producing operas. He passed away on March 5, 1959.


1920, RALPH EARNSHAW, King Consort of Queen Trinidad de Leon
Ralph (b. 24 Oct. 1894) was the son of Brigida Andres with Tomas Earnshaw, who, as the Mayor of Manila in 1908 had been the Committee Head of the Fluvial Parade in that year's Carnival.The Earnshaws were of English ancestry and Ralph's father was the brother of millionaire Don Manuel Earnshaw, head of Manuel Earnshaw & Co., a leading shipbuilder and boiler maker.

Ralph was the personal choice of Don Ceferino de Leon for his daughter Trinidad, the queen-elect of the 1920 Victory Carnival. But their courtship was short-lived as Trinidad went on to marry Manuel Roxas of Capiz. Ralph met and married Sofia Hernando (1900-1994), the beautiful daughter of Aurea Tanchangco and Dr. Eugenio Hernando in April 1922. Aurea is one of the famous “Women of Malolos” while Eugenio was a doctor in the Spanish Army who was loyal to the Filipino cause. In 1938, he was named Director of the Bureau of Public Health by Pres. Manuel L. Quezon.

Ralph and Sofia resided in Malolos during World War II, where the Hernandos—including Ralph—suffered much under the Japanese. The couple had three 3 children: Tomas, Remedios and Angel. Ralph passed away on 27 June 1983.

Francisco Varona
Politician and journalist, He was sent to Hawaii and the West Coast of the United States, as the head of the Labor Commission, to investigate the serious complaints of Filipino laborers. As a newspaperman, he started his career with Libertas, then with El Renacimiento Filipino before he became editor of La Vanguardia. He later acquired La Consolidacion Nacional and renamed it El Debate. He became the first editor of EL Debate, and his daily comments on national affairs became food for thought for government leaders
Francisco Tecson
Francisco or Pakong finished a dentistry course and became the first ever president of the National Dental Association, founded in 1924. The famous kundiman, “Nasaan Ka Irog?” composed by Nicanor Abelardo was based on Pakong’s doomed love story with his girlfriend Segunda. It was to him that the song was dedicated.

Alejandro Pardo Roces Jr.(b. 24 July 1900/d. 8 Jul. 1943) Son of Alejandro Roces and Antonia Pardo. Brother of Joaquin “Chino” Roces. Married to Joaquina Heras. He acquired ownership of The Manila Times in 1930 after it was sold by Englishman Thomas Gowan who founded the paper in 1898. His father had been a manager of the very popular T-V-T publications. He was a victim of the War, together with his father, Alejandro Sr.
Francisco Escolar LimjapSon of Mariano Limjap, the Chinese-Filipino businessman who helped finance the Revolution. His siblings included Esperanza (the original 1908 winner), Leonarda and Perico Limjap who married the 1923 queen, Catalina Apacible. Francisco married the 1926 winner, Socorro Henson in 1929 with whom he had 4 children.

Tuesday, October 27, 2009


1922 ROYALTIES, Virginia Llamas Romulo and her two Roman princesses, lounging languidly for the camera.

As the Carnival Queens enjoyed immense following, they were sought after by corporate sponsors to endorse their products. As early as 1924, longtime Carnival sponsor Coty perfume issued advertising photo cards of the winner, Trinidad Fernandez, with a handwritten endorsement of “Les Parfums de COTY Paris--favored above all French perfumes throughout the world”. On it, Trinidad had written: “Los perfumes ‘Coty’ son mis preferidos—Trining Fernandez, 12 de Febrero de 1924”. (Coty perfumes are my preferences).

TRINIDAD FERNANDEZ, 1924 Manila carnival Queen, in an advertising trade card for COTY Perfumes, a cosprorate sponsor of the annual carnival event.

By the 1930s, when advertising in the Philippines became more sophisticated and Western in its approach, testimonial print ads featuring winners attesting to the product benefits of Coty were published in leading magazines nationwide-further proof of the pulling power of a national figure that was the Carnival Queen.

1939 QUEEN ILUMINADA, gets made up with COTY Cosmetics, a major sponsor of the Manila Carnival, in a full page endorsement ad.

Overall, the Queens of the Manila Carnival succeeded in redefining the traditional concept of beauty through their groundbreaking achievements, heightened social awareness, patriotism and moral uprightness, taking their being national role models to heart. The image of a Filipina beauty queen transformed as a powerful agent of change was concretized in the Carnival years with winners like Pura Villanueva (1908), an indefatigable suffragist and social worker, Paz Marquez (1912) who, by 1919 became a school founder after years of being an acclaimed writer in English, Trinidad Fernandez (1924) , a patroness of the arts and Trinidad de Leon (1920) who went on to become a First Lady after the election of his husband Manuel Roxas as president of the Philippines.

(Reference: Hazel McFerson. Mixed Blessing: The Impact of the American Colonial Experience on Politics and Society in the Philippines (Contributions in Comparative Colonial Studies): 2001)


FREE PRESS NATIONAL BEAUTIES. A congregation of the country's fairest as chosen by the Philippine Free Press. They came from the country's most illustrious and often affluent, families. Among those in the winners' circle is Amanda Teopaco, who became the wife of Justice Jose Abad Santos (1st photo on the left, 2nd row).

Perhaps to underscore the fairness of the competition, a 1929 Carnival ad touted: “The selection for the Miss Philippines is a real beauty contest. It is not a popularity contest. The humblest girl from the most secluded barrio has as big a chance to win the honor as the daughter of the richest hacendero”. But in reality, every one knew that the rich, the prominent and the well-connected had the upperhand.

1926 PAMPANGA CARNIVAL. Pampanga province regularly sent delegates to the annual Manila Carnivals, and its petit fairs and exhibitions drew national attention. The winners were carefully selected from Kapampangan families with irrefutable character and reputation.

When the contest was eventually opened up to any interested party in 1927, it became necessary to draw up a set of criteria to guide the jury. The souvenir program from that year stated that the judges, “in the selection of the most beautiful ladies, shall consider besides the physical beauty, the personal charms and the general refinement and composure of the candidates”.

ROYAL DUTY CALLS. As part of her obligations, Miss Philippines graced social functions, fund-raising events and national holiday rites. L-R, Anita Noble (1926 Miss Philippines), Lourdes Rodriguez (1927 Miss Visayas), Luisa Marasigan (1927 Miss Philippines) and Nora Maulana (1927 Miss Mindanao).

It was only in 1929 that the criteria became more specific and explicit. The set of criteria detailed in a recruitment ad for the 1930 Miss Philippines also reflected the changing mores and the more progressive social milieu of the times. To qualify, “any young lady born in the Philippine Islands and who is a citizen of this country may be eligible as a candidate, regardless of race". Candidates, in addition, must be “at least 18 years old and not more than 25 years old”. It was also made clear that “she must be unmarried, with no stage or screen experience, and must enjoy a good reputation in the community”.

What was it about being a movie actress that prompted the Carnival Association members to disqualify them from entering the Miss Philippines contest? Were they really concerned of the undue advantage that their popularity generated? Or were there certain negative perceptions attached to a movie star with regards to her morals and conduct?

SWIMMING IN CONTROVERSY. Media had a field day covering the 1930 "bathing suit controversy" involving candidate Violeta Lopez, who refused to wear one, and which, according to rumors, cost her the crown.

More interesting was the way the rules expanded the definition of beauty by emphasizing that “in the selection of the different candidates, the following points shall be considered: Facial beauty, Perfection of form, Accomplishment.” This focus on physical form and body symmetry, included in the 1930 rules for the first time, triggered that year’s bathing suit controversy in which frontrunner Violeta Lopez refused to wear a swimsuit, which many believed cost her a slot in the finals. These criteria remained in force and were still being followed in 1935 although expressed differently: Facial beauty, perfection of lines, distinction.


That is not to say, however, that the Carnival participants were totally free from some form of exploitation, both subtle, overt and legitimate. After all, the Carnival was looked at as a business venture, and the beauty search was an accepted means of raise funds. Early publicity materials like to point out that every candidate representing “the piquancy of Morolandia, the grace of the Mountain Province, the charm of the Modern Filipina, not forgetting the dark-eyed Spanish mestizas, the blue-eyed daughters of American pioneers and the almond-eyed descents” can vie for, and win the queenship.

DAUGHTERS OF LUZVIMINDA. Beauties from Luzon (Miss La Union), Visayas (Miss Leyte) and Mindanao (Miss Lanao) converge at the 1927 edition of the Manila Carnival.

Those who were really in a better position to win the crown were daughters of de buena familia families who not only had the financial clout, but who also possessed sterling reputation and spotless character. Indeed, the voting public seemed to have placed a premium on the candidate’s distinguished background over physical beauty if one were to see the early list of winners. It was not necessary to make character investigations as the delegates were often handpicked by provincial officials and came to Manila with the most glowing recommendations.

REDEFINING THE STANDARDS OF BEAUTY. Carmen Papa, who, as one observer noted was "the least attractive, but certainly the gentlest", went on to win the 1925 Carnival Queen title. It also helped that his father, Ramon Papa, was a high profile member of the Philippine Commission.

Such was the case of the early winners like Pura Villanueva, whose feminist writings were already familiar to Manila society even if she wrote for regional newspapers. In 1925, queen-elect Carmen Papa, was described by beauty observers as being the least attractive among the candidates, but certainly “the gentlest”. The next year, when the choice for the Queen vacillated between Anita Noble of Batangas and Carmen Fargas of Zamboanga, the judges finally cast the deciding vote for the candidate with the more distinguished lineage—Anita Noble, who had the illustrious Agoncillos (diplomat Felipe, Maria, wife of Emilio Aguinaldo; Marcela, maker of the Philippine flag) on her bloodline.

Delegates of ethnic descent had slim chances of winning the crown given the stature of their provinces compared to imperial Manila which produced the most number of Carnival Queen winners (8), followed by Batangas with 3 (1913, 1923, 1926) and Iloilo, Bulacan and Pampanga with 2 winners. Even the backgrounds of the two Kapampangan winners were downplayed as Socorro Henson (1926) and Guia Balmori (1938) practically grew up in the city. The 1927 queen, Luisa Fernandez was actually from Tayabas, but represented Manila as she was a student in the city at the time of the contest.

PROMDI QUEEN. Provincial lasses held their own against the more sophiticated beauties from Manila and other key cities. Iloilo was the first province to have a daughter proclaimed as Carnival Queen, but only after the original Manila winner renounced her crown.

One would think that when a panel of judges replaced public subscription voting in 1926, the playing field for all contestants would be levelled. While it was true that Bala Amai Miring (Miss Lanao 1926) and Nora Maulana (Miss Sulu 1927) made it to the royal court as Misses Mindanao, the rules decreed at that time that the regional winners should authentically come from the provinces of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. This rule was revoked in 1930, and henceforth, the second, third and fourth placers were named as Miss Luzon, Miss Visayas and Miss Mindanao respectively.

MINDANAO MAIDENS. Nora Maulana and Bala Amai Miring (left and middle) were both named as Miss Mindanao in the 1926 and 1927 Carnival. Rules dictated then that the regional winners should come authentically from the region. No other Mindanao beauty won after the rules changed in 1930, where the regional titles were awarded to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th placers, irregardless of their origins . The third girl is Scott Rasul , Miss Sulu of 1926.

For ‘minority contestants’, the rule change practically reduced the chances of winning to virtually nil, paving the way for more Manileñas to place in the finals. There was quite a dissonance in the victory of Louise Stevens as Miss Mindanao 1931—as she was an American-mestiza and a Manila resident.

ALBAY CARNIVAL QUEEN OF 1935. Teresa Barrenechea. Provincial petit fairs were all the rage in the 1930s, with mini-carnivals staged everywhere from Cebu to Sorsogon, Capiz to Cagayan , Pampanga to Baguio.

The provinces thus, concentrated on their provincial fairs and expositions which, like the Cebu Carnivals, were said to rival the national event in Manila in terms of pomp and pageantry. Provinces like Baguio, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Tarlac, Sorsogon, Capiz and Pampanga held their own spectacular carnivals, electing Queens who did not have to go to Manila to compete for the Miss Philippines title; their royal duties were exclusive to their provinces alone.

Tuesday, October 20, 2009


When the very first Carnival began its search for the Queen to rule over the national festivities, emphasis was put on the ‘quality’ of candidates. W. Cameron Forbes called on the pater familias of the country’s most prominent families, to field in their daughters and lend their distinguished presence and participation to the biggest fair of the land. Indeed, the candidates’ lists read like who’s who from the elites of Philippine high society. The pedigreed beauty queens were extolled through street parades and discussed constantly on every leading paper and magazine, meriting prime space and enthusiastic coverage.

MISS FREE PRESS PHILIPPINES CANDIDATES. Free Press sponsored its own canddiates to the annual Manila Carnivals. The paper invited individuals to send pictures of beauties from whom they selected the finalists. Top middle picture shows Marcelina Cuenca, who won Miss Manila of Free Press and who later won Miss Visayas in the 1934 Manila Carnival finals.

An editorial from Philippine Free Press observed: “During the Carnival, we glorify Woman, placing her on a high pedestal and showering her with praise and attention. Thus, we pay due homage to the eternally feminine qualities of womankind, to her beauty and grace and charm.”

But by putting them on pedestals to be worshipped and honored, we have also unwittingly excluded them from the real world, removed from the strifes and struggles of daily living—in sharp contrast to the desire of the new Filipina to reinvent herself and be more than a beauty to be objectified. On the surface, it would seem that the Carnival Queens embodied the women who stuck to society’s patriarchal definition of her sex.

BEAUTIES TRANSFORMED. Two candidates to the 1934 Manila Carnival : the brain and beauty UP coed Consuelo Villamor and the socialite Pacita Madrigal, who later became a Senator in the Magsaysay administration.

In truth however, a review of the winners show them to be forward-looking women of the times who are ready to descend from their lofty pedestals to join the hurly-burly of life. The Free Press editorial gave proof to the Filipina’s coming-of-age as emerging leaders of the new 20th century: “Witness the recent convention of the National Federation of Women’s Clubs where members of the fair sex discussed everything from politics to hygiene. Witness also the invasion of women in the various professions once believed to be the exclusive field of men”.

When the delegates to the 2nd National Beauty Contest convened at the Colegio de Señoritas, the school directress, Socorro Hernandez, took note of the women power gathered inside the halls of the school, leading her recognize the significance of the event: “Above all, this gathering is replete with meaning for while it is intended as a consecration of beauty, at the same time, it is an eloquent manifestation of the tremendous transformation that is going on in the soul of the Filipino woman.

WHO'S THE FAIREST FILIPINA OF THEM ALL? A bevy of Philippine beauties from where Carnival candidates were chosen. Philippine Free Press ca. 1930s.

What is lasting in this gathering is not the image of physical beauty that in a short time fades from our memory, no. What is everlasting in this brilliant festival is the awakening of a consciousness of personality in the Filipino woman. It is the conquest of her real place in our society that makes gatherings of this kind valuable”.

88. The Carnivals in Restrospect: ENDINGS AND EXPECTATIONS

The very 1st Carnival in 1908 was conceived by Americans with the publicized aims that the event would be good for the country , and would make the world take note of the growing prosperity of the Philippines-- in essence, a showcase of America’s successful colonization.

But an unspoken intended objective was the complete obliteration of ill-feelings Filipinos still had for the Americans, generated by their painful defeat in the Philippine-American War, this, after a successful campaign against Spain. That victory allowed them to enjoy a brief period of political independence, to be taken away again by a new master.

American leaders realized that this slow-burning animosity could be a barrier towards their governance, hence the holding of a fun Carnival. But prejudices reared its ugly head many times even in the Carnival—like the discourtesies experienced by the 1908 Filipino King and Queen, leading El Renacimiento to write: “If the Americans, as excessively democratic sons of capital and labor, do not know nor recognize the rituals of etiqueta palatina, let them not take part in the farce of reality”.

Incidents like these, though minor annoyances, only served to fan the desires of Filipinos for complete independence. The fantastic floats that proclaimed the commercial and agricultural advancements of the country had the same effect, sending a strong message to Filipino spectators that they were indeed, ready for self-rule.

In 1916, the Jones Act was passed, creating the Philippine legislature composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives and promising to grant independence to Filipinos as soon as a stable form of government is established. But it also gave America the prerogative to decide when this “stable government” has been achieved. All the hopeful Filipinos could do was wait.

Thus, even in the midst of a unified Filipino-American Carnival gaiety, important reminders to America’s promise were dropped at every opportunity. The national beauty search provided that important platform from which at least one winner raised her voice to bring this message to a wider audience.

In a stirring speech given at her school to honor the candidates that had gathered there, Luisa Marasigan, the 1927 Miss Philippines, reminded her guests and friends that “ this yearly gathering should also be an occasion for renewing our faith in the righteousness of our sublime aspiration—the freedom of the Philippines. Because what is physical beauty unaccompanied by a spiritual grandeur, and what is spiritual greatness that does not aspire to liberty, the supreme of all sentiments?”

The school directress of Centro Escolar de Senoritas, Mrs. Socorro Hernandez, amplified this when she articulated her thoughts about what constitutes real beauty: “We think of it deeply that the holding of a national beauty contest every year is only a means to an end. A people that admires physical beauty is a people that possesses artistic temperament; but let us caution our people lest we forget, that there is another form of beauty more everlasting and of much more importance to us in these days of national construction; I mean the beauty of the soul, that soul which revolts to be under a foreign tutelage, that beautiful soul which aspires to nobler ambitions, that soul which spurns slavery and yearns for the sublime of all sentiments—the liberty of our country.”

In 1934, the first queen of the Carnival, Pura Villanueva, reminisced about the fabulous Carnival years. When asked which Carnival was the best, she replied: “For me, the best Carnival was that in which my daughter was elected queen (Maria Kalaw, 1931) because it was a Carnival that could probably be called Filipino.”

Indeed, Pura’s Carnival—in which she had been the star—was ironically orchestrated and administered by foreigners, and not by her countrymen. It took her 26 long years to realize that the ones who got the most out of the “greatest event in the Orient” were the Americans themselves.

The same year that Pura was interviewed, the Tydings-McDuffie Act was approved, finally providing for self-government and for Philippine independence from the United States after a transitional period of ten years. Underlining the preparedness of the country for the promised freedom, the 1937 fair downplayed the carnival aspect of the national event by calling attention to the great strides accomplished in the name of progress. From that year till the fairs ended in 1939, the national carnivals were renamed as the “Philippine Exposition”.

The war extended the period for another two years, but for the millions of Filipinos who had dreamt and aspired freedom all their lives, the long wait was still worth it.

Sunday, September 6, 2009



Estrella Fabon was also a candidate to the 1938 Perlas ng Silangan Contest. A well-known society figure in her time, she died young and single at the height of the American liberation of Manila.


ADELA PLANAS, 1939 Miss Visayas

Daughter of Iluminado Planas and Concepion Lim. She is the younger sister of Carmen Planas, the 1st woman councilor of Manila while another sister is Atty. Charito Planas, director of Nayong Pilipino-Clark and a champion of women's causes. Adela married a Paterno and became a doctor and a healer.


(NOTE: Nieva Erana is also credited as 1939 Miss Mindanao 1939 in some extant pictures, but was never featured in the royal court)


HERMINIA CAJULIS, Miss Mindanao 1939

Herminia "Meni" Cajulis was born on Feb. 1919 in Binakayan, Cavite to Mr. and Mrs. Felix Cajulis. She was also a contestant of the 1939 Bb. Perlas ng Silangan. After the contest, she went back to Cavite, settled in Kawit and ran a beauty-dress shop till the 1980s. She remained single all throughout her life.